Time - 30 minutes
Directions： Each sentence below has one or two blanks， each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five lettered words or sets of words. Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
1. Nonviolent demonstrations often create such ten- sions that a community that has constantly refused to —— its injustices is forced to correct them： the injustices can no longer be ——。
2. Since 1813 reaction to Jane Austen's novels has oscillated between —— and condescension； but in general later writers have esteemed her works more highly than did most of her literary ——。
（B） adoration. .contemporaries
3. There are， as yet， no vegetation types or ecosystems whose study has been —— to the extent that they no longer —— ecologists.
4. Under ethical guidelines recently adopted by the National lnstitutes of Health， human genes are to be manipulated only to correct diseases for which —— treatments are unsatisfactory.
5. It was her view that the country's problems had been —— by foreign technocrats， so that to invite them to come back would be counterproductive.
6. Winsor McCay， the cartoonist， could draw with incredible ——： his comic strip about Little Nemo was characterized by marvelous draftsmanship and sequencing.
7. The actual —— of Wilson's position was always —— by his refusal to compromise after having initially agreed to negotiate a settlement.
Directions： In each of the foiiowing questions， a related pair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered pairs of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.
8. SEDATTVE ： DROWSlNESS ：：
（A） epidemic ： contagiousness
（B） vaccine ： virus
（C） laxative ： drug
（D） anestheiic ： numbness
（E） therapy ： psychosis
（A） participant ： team
（B） commuter ： train
（C） gladiator ： arena
（D） senator ： caucus
（E） patient ： ward 10. CURIOSITY ： KNOW ：：
（A） temptation ： conquer
（B） starvation ： eat
（C） wanderlust ： travel
（D） humor ： laugh
（E） survival ： live
11. FRUGAL ： MISERLY ：：
（A） confident ： arrogant
（B） courageouss ： pugnacious
（C） famous ： aggressive
（D） rash ： foolhardy
（E） quiet ： timid
12. ANTIDOTE ： POISON ：：
（A） cure ： recovery
（B） narcotic ： sleep
（C） stimulant ： relapse
（D） tonic ： lethargy
（E） resuscitation ： breathing
13. STYGIAN.： DARK ：：
（A） abysmal ： low
（B） cogent ： contentious
（C） fortuitous.： accidental
（D） reckless ： threatening
（E） cataclysmic ： doomed
14. WORSHIP ： SACRIFICE ：：
（A） generation ： pyre
（B） burial ： mortuary
（C） weapon ： centurion
（D） massacre ： invasion
（E） prediction ： augury
15. EVANESCENT ： l）ISAPPEAR ：
（A） tlansparent ： penetrate
（B） onerous ： struggle
（C） feckless ： succeed
（D） illusory ： exist
（E） pliant ： yield
16. UPBRAlD ： REPROACH ：：
（A） dote ： like
（B） lal： ： stray
（C） vex ： please
（D） earn ： desire
（E） recast ： explain
Directions： Each passage in this group is followe by questions based on its content. After reading a passage， choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage. lt has been known for many decades that the appear- ance of sunspots is roughly periodic， with an average cycle of eleven years. Moreover， the incidence of solar flares and the flux of solar cosmic rays， ultraviolet radia- tion， and x-radiation all vary directly with the sunspot （5）
cycle. But after more than a century of investigation. the relation of these and other phenomena， known collec- tively as the solar-activity cycle， to terrescrial weather and climate remains unclear. For example. the sunspot cycle and the allied rnagnetic-polarity cycle have been （10）
linked to periodicities discerned in records of such vari- ables as rainhll. temperature， and winds. lnvariably，however， the relation is weak. and commonly ofdubious statistical significance. Effects of solar variability over longer terms have also （15）
been sought. The absence of recorded sunspot activity in the notes kept by European observers in the late seven- teenth and early eighteenth centuries has led some schol- ars to postulate a brief cessation of sunspot activity at that time （a period called the Maunder minimum）。 The （20）
Maunder minimum has been linked to a span of unusual cold in Europe extending from the sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries. The reality of the Maunder mini- mum has yet to be established， however， especially since the records that Chinese naked-eye observers of solar （25）
activity made at that time appear to contradict it. Scien- tists have also sought evidence of long-term solar period- icities by examining indirect climatological data， such as fossil recoras of the thickness of ancient tree rings. These studies， however， failed to link unequivocally terrestrial（30）
climate and the solar-activity cycle， or even to contirm the cycle's past existenue. If consistPn！ and re！iab！e geo！sgigal~-arek-xologieal evidence tracing the solar-activity cycle in the distant past could be found， it might also resolve an important（35）
issue in solar physics： how to model solar activity. Cur- rently， chere are two models of solar activity. The tirst supposes that the Sun's internal motions （caused by rotation and convection） interact with its large-scale magnetic field to produce a dynamo. a device in which（40）
mechanical energy is converted into the energy of a mag- netic field. ln short. the Sun's large-scale magnetic field is taken to be self-sustaining， so that the solar-activity cycle it drives would be maintained with little overall changc for perhaps billions of years. The alternative（45）
exp）anarion supposes that the Sun's large-sca）e magnetic field is a remnant of the field the Sun acquired when it formed， and is not sustained against decay. In this model. the solar mechanism dependent on the Sun's magnetiC field runs down more quickly. Thus， the char-（50）
acteristics of the solar-activity cycle uvuld be expected to change over a long period of time. Modern solar obser- vations span too short a time to reveal whether present cyclical solar aCtivity is a long-lived feature of the Sun，or merely a transient phenomenon.
17. The author focuses primarily on
（A） presenting two competing scientific theories concerning solar activity and evaluating geological evidence often cited to support them
（B） giving a brief overview of some recent scientifrc developments in s'olar physics and assessing their impact on future climatological research
（C） discussing the difficulties involved in linkinl： ter- restrial phenomena with solar activity and indicating how resolving that issue could have an impact on our understanding of solar physics
（D） pointing out the futility of a certain line of sci- entific inquiry into the terrestrial effects of solar activity and recommendine ita aban- donment in favor of purely physics-oriented research
（E） outlinine the specific reasons why a problem in solar physics has not yet been solved and faulting the overly theoretical approach of modern physicists.
18. Which of th.e following statements about the two models of solar activity. as they are described in lines 37-55， is accurate？
（A） In both modgls cyclical solar activity is regarded as a long-lived feature of the Sun， persisting with little change over billions of years.
（B） Tn both models the solar-activity cycle is hypothesized as being dependent on the large-scale solar magnetic field.
（C） Tn one model the Sun's magnetic fieid is thought to play a role in causing solar activ- ity， whereas in the other model it is not.
（D） In one model solar activity is presumed to be unrelated to terrestrial phenomena. whereas in the other model solar activity is thought to have observable effects on the Earth.
（E） In one model cycles of solar activity with peri- odicities longer than a few decades are con- sidered to be impossible， whereas in the other model such cycles are predicted.
19. According to the passage， late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century