1. Drug companies lose money when manufacturing drugs that cure those suffering from rare diseases because selling a drug to only a few people usually does not recoup manufacturing expenses.Therefore， a company manufacturing any of the drugs that cure those suffering from loxemia， an extremely rare disease， will undoubtedly lose money.Which of the following， if true， most seriously weakens the conclusion above？
（A）Several drugs that cure those suffering from loxemia also cure those suffering from very common illnesses.
（B）Most of those who contract loxemia also con- tract another illness concurrently.
（C）Most of the drug companies that manufacture drugs that cure rare diseases do not manufac- ture drugs that cure loxemia.
（D）A sizable number of people are afflicted with one or another rare disease even though each rare disease afflicts only a small number of people.
（E）The larger the amount of a drug that is manu- factured， the lower the manufacturing expense for each unit of the drug that is produced.
2.The tomb of a warrior killed in 1501 bears a sculpted portrait depicting him dressed for battle.Some his- torians attribute the portrait to an artist from that century， but of the many references to the tomb in surviving documents， none that predates the 1800's mentions the portrait.The portrait is therefore more likely the work of a much later artist.Which of the following， if true， would also support the conclusion of the argument if substituted for the evidence given concerning the portrait？
（A）The portrait of the warrior was commissioned by the family of the warrior's widow.
（B）References in surviving documents mention that an artist was paid in 1525 for an unspecified number of works for the church in which the tomb is located
（C）The warrior is depicted in the portrait as wearing boots made of a material not used for boots until the 1700's.
（D）Some other art treasures from the church in which the tomb is located have been reliable dated to the 1400's.
（E）The portrait of the warrior on the tomb strongly resembles a portrait of him known to have been completed during his lifetime.
A florist is designing flower arrangements containing two or more varieties of flowers selected from among six varieties of flowers：freesias， irises， lilies， peonies， tulips， and zinnias.All acceptable arrangements conform to the following conditions：
If an arrangement contains any freesias， it cannot contain any zinnias.
If an arrangement contains any tulips， it cannot contain any zinnias.
If an arrangement contains any peonies， it must also contain at least one zinnia， and there must be exactly as many zinnias as peonies.
If an arrangement contains any irises， it must also contain tulips， and there must be twice as many tulips as irises.
If an arrangement contains freesias， the number of freesias must be greater than the total number of other flowers used.
3. Which of the following flower arrangements could be made acceptable simply by adding a tulip？
（A）Three freesias， one lily， two tulips
（B）Four freesias， two peonies， one tulip
（C）Five freesias， one iris， one tulip
（D）Two irises， two tulips， two zinnias
（E）Two lilies， two peonies， two tulips
4.Which of the following， if added to an unacceptable flower arrangement consisting of four tulips and two freesias， would make the arrangement acceptable？
5.Each of the following is a pair of varieties of flowers that can be used together in an acceptable flower arrangement EXCEPT
（A）freesias and irises
（B）freesias and tulips
（C）irises and lilies
（D）irises and peonies
（E）lilies and zinnias
6.Which of the following unacceptable flower arrange- ments could be made acceptable simply by removing some or all of the flowers of one variety？
（A）Four freesias， one iris， one lily， one peony
（B）Four freesias， one iris， two tulips， one zinnia
（C）Four freesias， two irises， two tulips， one zinnia
（D）Three freesias， one lily， one peony， two zinnias
（E）Three freesias， two peonies， one tulip， two zinnias
7.If an unacceptable flower arrangement consisting of four freesias， one lily， one peony， and two tulips is to be made acceptable by adding or removing only one flower， which of the following must be done？
（A）Add one freesia
（B）Add one iris
（C）Add one zinnia
（D）Remove the peony
（E）Remove one tulip
8.Scientist：More than 1， 000 large asteroids regularly cross the Earth's path.Even though the probabil- ity of one colliding with the Earth is extremely slight， we should do whatever we can to reduce that probability since any such collision would be catastrophic.The best way to avoid such a disaster is to deflect the asteroids.The only known way of deflecting asteroids is by hitting them with nuclear weapons that would be stored in space stations.
The scientist's claims are structured so as to lead to which of the following conclusions？
（A）Nuclear technology is the only technology that can plausibly be used to prevent natural catastrophes.
（B）Nuclear weapons should be deployed in space.
（C）No catastrophe has yet been caused by the collision of an asteroid with the Earth.
（D）The 1， 000 large asteroids that cross the Earth's path pose only an extremely slight risk of colliding with the Earth.
（E）There is currently no acceptable use to which nuclear weapons can be put， aside from pro- tecting the Earth from asteroids.
9.It has long been thought that high levels of the hor- mone testosterone contribute to the onset of heart disease in men.However， this view cannot be correct， since men who have heart disease typically show significantly lower levels of testosterone than do men who have not had heart disease.
The argument above assumes which of the following？
（A）Many men who have never had heart disease have unusually low levels of testosterone.
（B）Having heart disease does not significantly lower the level of testosterone in men.
（C）Levels of hormones other than testosterone significantly affect the likelihood that a man will develop heart disease.
（D）Heart disease and lowered testosterone levels in men are the effects of a single common cause.
（E）High levels of testosterone have never been thought to contribute to a serious disease other than heart disease
10.The time-out technique involves removing the child from an undesirable situation in order to let the child think things over.Over the last two decades， family doctors have been advocating this technique as preferable to spanking， which is now known to be potentially injurious and no more effective.
10.Which of the following can properly be concluded from the data presented in the graph？
（A）The 1962 survey was based on a larger sample than the 1992 survey was.
（B）In the period between the surveys， denying tele- vision privileges was never the disciplinary technique most popular with parents.
（C）The four disciplinary techniques featured in the graph were the only disciplinary techniques named by parents in either survey.
（D）The 1962 survey allowed parents to name more than one disciplinary technique， but the 1992 survey may not have allowed this.
（E）In the period between the surveys， there were no significant changes in the popularity of lec- turing children as a disciplinary method.
11.People who engage in scuba diving are healthier， on average， than people who do not engage in this activity.Therefore， scuba diving tends to promote improved health.
The argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it
（A）presupposes that everyone who takes up scuba diving does so solely for health reasons
（B）leads to a further and falsifiable conclusion that no one can achieve good health without engaging in scuba diving
（C）fails to point out that a small number of people are seriously injured in scuba diving accidents each year
（D）treats a precondition for improving one's health as though it were something that by itself could ensure good health
（E）overlooks the possibility that people generally do not take up scuba diving unless they are in good health
An art museum owns six paintings by an eighteenth- century painter.The paintings， listed in order by esti- mated value from lowest to highest， are F， G， H， S， T， and U.Paintings F， G， and H are landscapes； S， T， and U are portraits.At any one time， exactly three of the six paintings are on exhibit， subject to the following restrictions：
The paintings on exhibit cannot all be landscapes.If the exhibit includes only one portrait， that portrait must be U.
H cannot be on exhibit at any time that T is on exhibit.
12.Which of the following could be the three paintings on exhibit at some point？
（A）F， G， and H
（B）F， G， and T
（C）G， H， and S
（D）G， S， and U
（E）H， T， and U
13.Which of the following， if they are the first two paintings selected for inclusion in a future exhibit， leave the widest choice of paintings for the third painting in that future exhibit？
（A）F and G
（B）G and H
（C）H and U
（D）S and T
（E）S and U
14.An exhibit must include S if which of the following i